While reading some out takes from ‘The Anime Art of Hoyao Miyazaki’ for critical studies I came across a small section about animation as far back as 1600 B.C.

” As far as animation is specifically concerned, its conception could be feasibly associated with the erection by the Egyptian Pharaoh Rameses II in 1600 B.c of a temple dedicated to Isis, in which all the columns displayed painted images of the goddess in gradually changing positions, so that a viewer riding past would experience the illusion of movement”

‘ The Anime Art of Hayao Miyazaki’ by Dani Cavallaro, January 2006

It also mentions Greek artists decorating pots with people and animals in different stages of action. the would then spin the spots to simulate movement.