Post-structuralism is a label formulated by American academics to denote the heterogeneous works of a series of French intellectuals who came to international prominence in the 1960s and ’70s. The label primarily encompasses the intellectual developments of prominent mid-20th-century French and continental philosophers and theorists.

Jean Baudrillard was a French philosopher, critic social and cultural theorist photographer.  He was a pioneering theorist in the domains of semiotics, political economy, postmodernism, popular culture and media theory. One of the generation of french thinkers associated with ‘post- structuralism’

Simulacra and Simulation (1981)

In this work, Baudrillard famously elaborated his theory of simulacra, which he had been developing since the 1970s. According to Baudrillard, simulacra are copies either of the thing they are intended to represent or stand in for or – in recent history – are merely copies of other copies. For a long-time a controversial concept, the simulacrum as described by Baudrillard has become a key term in postmodern theory and culture. In this work, Baudrillard famously elaborated his theory of simulacra, which he had been developing since the 1970s.

Simulacra and Simulation

” The simulacrum is never that which conceals the truth, it is the truth which conceals that there is none The simulacrum is true ”

Simulacra and Simulation is most known for its discussion of symbols, signs, and how they relate to contemporaneity. Baudrillard claims that our current society has replaced all reality and meaning with symbols and signs, and that human experience is of a simulation of reality. Something the Wachowski brothers displayed in the plot of the film The Matrix.

The film depicts a future in which reality as perceived by most humans is actually a simulated reality created by sentient machines to pacify and subdue the human population, while their bodies’ heat and electrical activity are used as an energy source. Upon learning this, computer programmer “Neo” is drawn into a rebellion against the machines, involving other people who have been freed from the “dream world” and into reality.

-a condition in which “reality” has been replaced by simulacra
-Baudrillard argues that today we only experience prepared realities– edited war footage, meaningless acts of terrorism, the Jerry Springer Show
The very definition of the real has become: that of which it is possible to give an equivalent reproduction. . . The real is not only what can be reproduced, but that which is always already reproduced: that is the hyperreal. . . which is entirely in simulation.

Illusion is no longer possible, because the real is no longer possible.

Division between “real” and simulation has collapsed

Hyperreality notes from lesson

– Father christmas is a construction in a world where things we relate to don’t exist.

society of the spectacle = The Society of the Spectacle (La Société du spectacle) is a work of philosophy and critical theory by Guy Debord. It was first published in 1967 in France.

pressay –

– We are in a world where things we relate to dont exist.

– Reality TV shows are supposed to portray a sense of reality but it is far from it, it is edited which takes away the reality.

– Reality is a construction of consumerism

-Signs (semiotics) are not a accurate representation of reality it’s self.

-No longer have we the link to the real world

-The meaning of reality is lost in modern media

-The hyperreality is becoming reality

Alternatively we can relate to on-screen characters through our own bodies so that emotions and feelings of the character become our own. (A connection through past experience)

For example the film Avatar is a realisation of the loss of our rain forests and care of our planet. This move even had some psychological effects on some of it’s audiance to an extent that they required therapy. Their emotions transferred across from the movie to the realisation of our own planet. Although the influence and thoughts of movies differer from person to person.